Absent global efforts to mitigate antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with better surveillance and concerted action, we face a post-antibiotic era. OHT/CDDEP researchers are leading data collection and analysis in Africa for the Mapping Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use Partnership (MAAP) consortium to determine the extent of the continent’s AMR crisis.

The Study

The MAAP project is collecting retrospective data on antimicrobial resistance and use from public and private laboratories and pharmacies throughout Africa. The approach takes advantage of established networks among consortium partners and in-country systems. Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for different bug-drug combinations and specimens (both bacterial and fungal) will reveal the status of AMR and its links with clinical variables.

Antimicrobial Resistance Project Objectives

  • To assess the sources and quality of AMR data by national laboratory networks, both public and private.
  • To collect, digitize, and analyze retrospective data from selected facilities, using standardized electronic tools to determine the completeness and validity of the data.
  • To estimate country-level AMR prevalence and trends for priority pathogens (as defined by the World Health Organization) and other clinically important pathogens.
  • To assess the flow of antimicrobial drugs in-country and the feasibility of conducting surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance.
  • To quantify and evaluate trends in antimicrobial use and resistance at national and pharmacy levels.
  • To assess the relationship between antimicrobial use and resistance through the Drug Resistance Index.
  • To assess the drivers of AMR.

Project Outcomes

  • The number of laboratories in national networks generating AMR data and the proportion of laboratories that meet standards of quality and bacteriology testing.
  • The completeness and validity of AMR data from selected laboratories.
  • AMR prevalence and trends for World Health Organization priority pathogens and other clinically important pathogens.
  • The number and percentage of pharmacies that meet standards for reporting antimicrobial use.
  • A qualitative description of the flow of antimicrobial drugs and the feasibility of conducting surveillance of antimicrobial use in each country.
  • Total consumption of antimicrobials and consumption trends at national and pharmacy levels.
  • Country-level drug resistance indices.
  • Associations between patient factors and AMR.


Our partners from MAAP consortium include:

  • African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM)
  • Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • West African Health Organization (WAHO)
  • East Central & Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC)
  • Innovative Support to Emergencies, Diseases and Disasters (InSTEDD)

Funded by the Fleming Fund Regional Grant