Willingness to self-test for SARS-CoV-2 varies with people’s views, perceptions, and sociocultural factors. One Health Trust is participating in an interdisciplinary project to close the knowledge gap about preferences in self-testing among the general population and their representatives in the low- and middle-income countries of Brazil, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru, the Philippines, and South Africa.

The Study

Using cross-sectional surveys and qualitative inquiries, OHT researchers and collaborators conducted a multi-sited, mixed methods, observational study in eight low- and middle-income countries: Brazil, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru, the Philippines, and South Africa. The study is mapping factors that may foster or hinder the acceptability of self-testing and determining what actions people are likely to take after testing positive for COVID-19. The aim is to find culturally appropriate, effective strategies for implementation of self-testing in resource-constrained settings.


  • FIND, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Locomotiva, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Ipsos, New Delhi, India
  • Peduli Hati Bangsa, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • International Centre for Reproductive Health-Kenya, Mombasa, Kenya
  • Ife Ile University, Nigeria
  • Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru
  • LoveYourself Inc, Philippines
  • Advance Access and Delivery, South Africa

Funded by FIND, Geneva, Switzerland.


Thomas, C., Shilton, S., Thomas, C., Batheja, D., Goel, S., Mone Iye, C., … & Martínez-Pérez, G. Z. 2022. Values and preferences of the general population in Indonesia in relation to rapid COVID-19 antigen self-tests: A cross-sectional survey. Tropical Medicine & International Health. Available here.

Manguro, G., Shilton, S., Omenda, S., Owira, P., Batheja, D., Banerji, A., Chabeda, S.V., Temmerman, M., Jako, W., Ndungu, J. and Luchters, S. 2022. Are Kenyans Likely to Use COVID-19 Self-Testing Kits? Results From a Cross-Sectional Survey. International Journal of Public Health. Available here.

Martínez-Pérez, G.Z., Shilton, S., Saruê, M., Cesario, H., Banerji, A., Batheja, D., Cunha, J.P., Baptista, R., Schirmer, J., Ivanova Reipold, E. and Machado Dias, A. 2022.  Self-Testing for COVID-19 in São Paulo, Brazil: Results of a Population-Based Values and Attitudes Survey. BMC Infectious Diseases. Available here.