Americans are aware of AMR, but fail to use antibiotics properly. The Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF)’s US poll to assess the public’s awareness and perceptions of antibiotic resistance found that 71 percent of Americans are aware of antibiotic resistance, and 53 percent consider antibiotic overuse a major problem. However, 27 percent incorrectly believe that antibiotics can cure viral infections. Nearly half of respondents admitted to not taking an antibiotic as prescribed.  [Kaiser Family Foundation]

 Urban wildlife linked to the spread of AMR in Nairobi. Researchers from the University of Liverpool and the International Livestock Research Institute explored the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) from urban wildlife to humans, livestock, and the surrounding environment, in Nairobi, Kenya.  Their study, based on 2,102 fecal samples, found a high prevalence of multi-drug resistance in E. coli isolates from wildlife samples (52 percent). Of the 485 wildlife samples that contained E. coli, one isolate from an avian sample was resistant to all 13 antibiotics tested for, and multiple isolates were resistant to one agent from at least seven classes of antibiotics tested for. The study found higher phenotypic diversity in humans, livestock, and the environment compared to wildlife. Rodents and birds that were exposed to human and livestock waste were most likely to carry AMR, suggesting the need for improved waste management systems. [The Lancet Planetary Health, EurekAlert!, CIDRAP]

Study finds high levels of global trust in science. The Wellcome Trust surveyed more than 140,000 people across 140+ countries to assess the world’s views on science and health. Findings indicate that 79 percent of people worldwide trust doctors and nurses as a source of health advice, but this level of confidence decreases with lower income levels. Almost three-quarters of people surveyed trust scientists. Globally, 79 percent of people believe that vaccines are safe, and 84 percent believe they are effective. Respondents in Rwanda and Bangladesh had the highest levels of trust in vaccines, while those in France had the lowest. [Wellcome]

WHO launches AWaRe campaign to guide global antibiotic use. The World Health Organization (WHO)’s AWaRe tool classifies antibiotics into three groups, providing guidance on which antibiotics should be widely available for treatment of common infections (Access antibiotics), which ones need to be used sparingly due to their higher resistance potential (Watch antibiotics), and those that should only be prescribed as a last resort (Reserve antibiotics). The new campaign, “AdoptAWaRe, Handle antibiotics with care” aims to increase the proportion of global consumption of antibiotics that are in the Access category to at least 60 percent, while reducing the use of Watch and Reserve antibiotics. [AdoptAWaRe]

Trust fund launched to tackle AMR. Jointly launched last week by the Tripartite group of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the AMR Multi-Partner Trust Fund aims to combat the global risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by scaling up countries’ existing AMR action plans in a 5-year period, through 2024. The Government of the Netherlands has contributed $5 million to the trust fund, which aims to raise $70 million for the 2019-20 work plan. [FAO]

Clinical outcomes of bacteremic pneumonia in children. Using data from children who were hospitalized for pneumonia and enrolled in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community study between 2010-2012, researchers at Vanderbilt University and Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital assessed the association between bacteremia and clinical outcomes of pneumonia. Of the 2143 children who researchers collected a blood culture for, 2.2 percent had bacteremia, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was seen in 50 percent of these samples. Although uncommon, the presence of bacteremia was associated with longer hospital stays (aHR=0.79), increased odds of ICU admission (aOR=5.21), and increased odds of invasive mechanical ventilation or shock (aOR=5.28). [Pediatrics]

Trends in global cigarette consumption, 1970-2015. A team of researchers compiled cigarette consumption data from 71 countries, standardized to units of cigarettes consumed per year, to estimate trends in cigarette consumption across the world from 1970-2015. Results indicate that cigarette consumption decreased in most countries during the study timeframe, although country-specific trends were variable.  Consumption in the US, Japan, Poland, Brazil, and Germany, half of the top 10 cigarette-consuming countries, steadily decreased from 1985-2015. However, consumption in China and Indonesia increased steadily over this same time period, and consumption in Russia plateaued. [BMJ]

Rotavirus vaccine decreases rotavirus hospitalizations in children. Using 2008-2016 data from the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, researchers from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed the impact of the rotavirus vaccine on rotavirus gastroenteritis (GE) hospitalizations among children under 5. Annually, rotavirus was detected in 38 percent of acute GE cases in countries that had not introduced the rotavirus vaccine into their immunization programs, compared to 23 percent of cases in countries that had introduced the vaccine. These findings are equivalent to a 39.6 percent relative decline in rotavirus-associated GE cases following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. [The Lancet Global Health]

CDDEP Awards in Antimicrobial Resistance. CDDEP Awards in Antimicrobial Resistance will sponsor two individuals for the best-accepted abstracts addressing AMR in low- or middle-income countries for the 19th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID). The awards consist of reimbursement of travel, accommodation, and registration expenses for the 19th ICID in Kuala Lumpur, February 20-23, 2020. Submit your abstract addressing AMR in LMICs by Oct. 25, 2019. [ICID]

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