Worker in protective gear touching the back of cows

The impact of gender and caste discrimination and climate change on AMR

The One Health Trust recently hosted a two-day workshop funded by the World Health Organization and the British Academy (Bangalore, India) on gender and caste inequities, climate change, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The workshop participants – from fields including climate science, gender studies, pharmaceutical sciences, and more – provided diverse perspectives on drug-resistant infections and potential solutions to control their spread. From ensuring women are included in clinical trials to establish inclusive prescribing guidelines for new antibiotic treatments to improving access to drinking water and menstruation products and promoting education to reduce stigma around gynecological issues and sexually transmitted diseases, the experts emphasized the need to work across disciplines and sectors to effectively mitigate AMR. [One Health Trust]

A call to change narratives around AMR

The current language used to describe antimicrobial and antibiotic resistance to non-experts is a barrier to effective policymaking, resource mobilization, and overall progress in the field. Public messaging around antibiotics often lacks information about the consequences of antibiotic use at the individual level, such as the disruption of human gut microbiomes. The authors call for multisectoral discussions to improve the language and messaging by agreeing on a common vision and formulating more appropriate narratives tailored to local contexts. [Infectious Diseases]

Tetracycline-resistant gonorrhea is associated with STI testing and treatment in high-risk individuals.

An ecological analysis found strong positive correlations between tetracycline resistance (TetR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which increased from 42.2 percent in 2016 to 80.0 percent in 2020, and bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and antimicrobial treatment of STIs in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Similar positive correlations were not observed among heterosexual men and women, suggesting that intense STI screening in dense, high-risk social networks, leading to frequent treatment with antibiotics, may increase selection pressure for resistance mechanisms. Additionally, increased use of doxycycline for the treatment of non-gonorrheal STIs may contribute to the development of TetR in N. gonorrhoeae through the bystander effect. [Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy]

Perceived importance of One Health ethics review systems

A survey of One Health researchers, research ethics committee members, and members of regulatory bodies in Africa revealed that one’s professional role predicted their perception of the importance of establishing a mandatory One Health review system. Furthermore, women and individuals with more than 10 years of experience perceived insufficient knowledge of One Health research as a lesser barrier to ethics review processes than men and individuals with fewer years of professional experience. [One Health]

The avian influenza vaccine was highly effective at reducing poultry mortality.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental challenge trials found that the overall efficacy of a vaccine against the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) clade was approximately 89 percent in reducing mortality in poultry. However, vaccine efficacy differed substantially for homologous versus heterologous HPAI strains, illustrating the impact of the rapid HPAI virus evolution on vaccine efficacy. The overall high efficacy of HPAI vaccines indicates that vaccines must be incorporated into a new global strategy to reduce the burden of mortality due to avian influenza. [One Health]

Exploring optimal interventions to mitigate heat-related illnesses

A new conceptual framework grounded in One Health identified optimal models and interventions for high temperature-related diseases (HTDs). The results of the Graph Neural Network model revealed that expanding basic health care delivery coverage would significantly reduce HTD burden in North America (57.93 percent), Europe and Central Asia (38.40 percent), and Latin America and the Caribbean (32.11 percent). Variations in the regional estimates highlight the importance of the local economic and environmental contexts in policymaking. [Infectious Disease Modelling]

Educational campaigns in Ecuador increased schoolchildren’s knowledge about antibiotic resistance.

A pretest-posttest intervention study found that the Alforja Educativa, an educational campaign to teach schoolchildren in Ecuador about antibiotic use and resistance, was effective at improving the knowledge of participants about bacteria, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance. Knowledge scores increased for questions on the meaning of antibiotic resistance (37.4 to 72.0 percent), ways to prevent antibiotic resistance (63.2 to 75.6 percent), and the meaning of self-medication (46.3 to 54.3 percent). [BMC Public Health]

Combatting antifungal resistance in fungal pathogens

A recent review demonstrates the importance of cutting-edge technologies, such as open-access genomic surveillance databases established during the COVID-19 pandemic and rapid resistance diagnostics, in tracking the emergence and spread of fungal pathogens. Improved antimicrobial stewardship is critical to controlling the development of antifungal resistance in fungal pathogens. As antifungal agents continue to be used clinically and in the environment, the risk of emerging resistance remains heightened without increased investment in multisectoral, technological solutions. [Current Clinical Microbiology Reports]

Effects of a single dose of dengue vaccine in children in the Philippines

A prospective cohort study revealed that a single dose of the three-dose dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) did not confer protection against virologically confirmed dengue in children aged 9 to 14 years who had none or one previous dengue virus (DENV) infection at baseline. However, a single dose of CYD-TDV conferred significant protection (70 percent) against hospital admission among children with two or more DENV infections at baseline during the first three years of follow-up. These findings suggest that the number of previous DENV infections might be important for analyzing data from future dengue vaccine trials. [The Lancet Infectious Diseases]

Avian influenza cases in people working with poultry and livestock in the United States

On Friday, April 5, 2024, the US CDC announced the second case of infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) in a person working with dairy cows in Texas. The first case of this flu was detected in a poultry worker in 2022 in Colorado. Genomic analysis revealed the virus highly resembled that isolated from infected cows and birds in Texas. While the risk to the general public remains low, the CDC recommends that people working with poultry and livestock, avoid unprotected exposures to animals with suspected or confirmed H5N1 and their environment. [CDC]

Effects of climate change and biodiversity loss on Indigenous health and wellbeing

A systematic review guided by an Indigenous advisory group highlights the role of ecosystem changes resulting from human activities based on capitalism and colonialism in the health and well-being of Indigenous Peoples. Climate change has negatively impacted subsistence activities such as hunting, fishing, and foraging across Indigenous communities, and water scarcity is specifically identified as a key driver of food insecurity and disease in the Global South. Engagement with diverse knowledge systems and prioritization of Indigenous-led climate action are necessary steps for promoting the health and well-being of Indigenous Peoples in the context of their connection to local lands and waters. [PLOS Global Public Health]


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