Woman in sari picking strawberries in a field

Vaccine value profile for Klebsiella pneumoniae in pregnant women

OHT’s Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan co-authored a paper that presents a Vaccine Value Profile (VVP) for a maternal vaccine against Klebsiella pneumoniae – the second leading pathogen in deaths attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 2019. Globally, a maternal K. pneumoniae vaccine with 70 % efficacy could avert almost 400,000 neonatal sepsis cases and 80,000 neonatal deaths annually. The effects of a licensed vaccine on healthcare costs, productivity, and economic growth are largely unknown and represent an important research gap. [Vaccine]

Expanding antibiotic access and stewardship in low- and middle-income countries

OHT’s Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan co-authored a Personal View article that discusses the challenges faced by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in responding to the burden of antibiotic resistance. The authors call for a new model for antibiotic access and stewardship in LMICs, where evidence-based guidance and facility-level stewardship drive clinical decision-making regarding antibiotic use, particularly in the context of severe bacterial infections requiring Reserve antibiotics. [The Lancet Infectious Diseases] 

The effect of living with parents-in-law on Indian women’s workforce participation and autonomy

Research by OHT’s Abhik Banerji and Dr. Deepshikha Batheja reveals that the unanticipated death of a co-residing father-in-law increased the autonomy and workforce participation of women in India. While the death of a co-residing mother-in-law increased women’s financial autonomy, it did not affect labor participation. These findings suggest traditional, household-based gender norms (particularly surrounding fathers-in-law), play a role in determining womens financial independence, decision-making authority, and involvement in the paid labor force in India. [One Health Trust]

Modeling the cost-effectiveness of medical oxygen cylinders

Findings from a modeling study co-authored by OHT’s Dr. Varun Manhas can inform policies to optimize the resilience of medical oxygen sources in Indian healthcare facilities. The study found that pressure swing adsorption (PSA) plants are more cost-effective than liquid medical oxygen tanks and third-party oxygen cylinders as sources of medical oxygen. PSA plants were found to be most economical when used to their maximum capacity on an electrical power source but most expensive when powered by a diesel generator. [Indian Journal of Anesthesia]

High rates of resistance in E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from children in sub-Saharan Africa

A systematic review and meta-analysis revealed high proportions of resistance to antibiotics commonly used in the empirical treatment of Enterobacterales infections in children under 18 years in sub-Saharan Africa. The overall prevalence of E. coli and K. pneumoniae blood isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was 40.6 percent and 84.9 percent, respectively. However, these isolates also displayed resistance to other widely used antibiotics such as amoxicillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole. [eClinicalMedicine] 

Expanding diagnostics to respond to the climate crisis

As climate change exacerbates the emergence of novel pathogens, re-emergence of infectious diseases, and increased incidence of non-communicable diseases, there is an urgent need to enhance diagnostic capacities at the individual and population levels, particularly in communities forcibly displaced by extreme weather events. A community centered One Health approach must guide policymakers and diagnostic manufacturers to consider the social dimensions of accessing diagnostics and mitigate the carbon footprint of diagnostic tools. [PLOS Global Public Health] 

Novel parasites identified in commensal rodents in Qatar

A recent study identified a wide range of rodent-borne parasites in commensal rodents in Qatar; more than half tested positive for a parasite, while one-third were co-infected by two or more parasites. 8 of the 10 characterized parasitic species were identified for the first time in the country. As Qatar continues to undergo rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion, the risk of parasitic transmission between animals and humans increases, warranting national policies focusing on the human-animal-ecosystem interface. [One Health]

The current landscape of opinion on mass drug administration for neglected tropical disease control

A systematic review explored ethical arguments for and against mass drug administration (MDA) for the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases. A broad range of ethical reasons revealed mixed messaging regarding the implications of MDA. While the nature of the review makes it difficult to make specific recommendations, equitable implementation, community autonomy, and sustainability emerged as key issues which warrant greater research and focus. [BMJ Global Health]

Opportunities and challenges of AI in antibiotic stewardship

Chatbots are a subtype of artificial intelligence that allow for natural language interactions with users. In the context of antibiotic resistance, chatbots can integrate data from electronic health records and laboratory information systems to provide clinical recommendations and optimize antibiotic efficacy based on patients’ responses to treatment. Despite the myriad of potential applications of chatbots in antibiotic stewardship, their ability to access medical records and inherent dependence on technology raises concerns about privacy and medical ethics. [Current Research in Biotechnology]


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