The Lancet — October 22, 2022. “The lack of medical oxygen caused a significant number of deaths in India. We had an entire year to prepare once we knew that this was a respiratory disease. Medical oxygen is a fairly simple intervention that could have saved many lives in the absence of vaccines or therapeutics. Nearly one-third of excess deaths due to COVID-19 worldwide occurred in India—4·5 million people—and most of these occurred before May, 2021, before the vaccines were deployed widely,” Ramanan Laxminarayan, President of One Health Trust, New Delhi, India.