The Question

With the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Zanzibar at historic lows, what are the causes of the remaining cases and how can control be improved?

What we found

The analysis suggests that citizens of Zanzibar who travel to malaria-endemic regions are likely to be the single most important source of importation.

Why it matters

Enhanced prevention and control strategies aimed at mitigating pathogen importation would eventually cause malaria to disappear from most of the island, except possibly in a few residual foci if no imported infections occurred.